BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey Q1 2019 Results
The BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey analyzed 4828 finished feed and raw commodity samples sourced from 60 countries over the period January to March 2019 as part of the ongoing effort to identify the presence of mycotoxins and the potential risk posed to livestock animal production.
- Co-contamination remains a hot topic. 73% of all samples (analyzed for at least two mycotoxins) contained more than one mycotoxin.
- South Asia region remains at extreme risk. This is mainly due to the very high abundance of aflatoxins (Afla) (88%) with an average contamination of 20 ppb (maximum 210 ppb).
- Risk increased from severe to extreme in Central America. Fumonisins (FUM) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are frequently found, but particularly DON threatens this region.
- In North America, DON remains the most prevalent mycotoxin (82%, average contamination 869 ppb).
- South America shows a high abundance of FUM but also DON and is at severe risk (72% and 61%, respectively).
- Europe is at high risk of mycotoxin contamination. FUM and DON are most prevalent (64% and 58%, respectively), but also zearalenone (ZEN) is a topic (56%, average contamination 78 ppb and with a maximum of 9905 ppb).
- In Africa, FUM was found in all samples analyzed (100%, average contamination 203 ppb, maximum 3374 ppb).
This Figure 1 map presents the prevalence of the main well known mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA), in the different regions. Colors in the map indicate the risk levels of the regions. These risk levels are based on the percentage of samples for which at least one mycotoxin exceeds the risk threshold levels for livestock. The thresholds are defined by BIOMIN and rely on years of practical experience and research. They consider the most sensitive species for each mycotoxin.
In North America, DON was the most abundant mycotoxin, found in 82% of the samples with an average of 869 ppb and poses an extreme risk to swine. When comparing the prevalence of the main mycotoxins in the first quarter of 2019 to the first quarter of 2018, an increase can be seen for DON (62 to 82%), FUM (49 to 63%) and also ZEN (25 to 60%).
DON also showed a higher average concentration from January-March 2019 (869 ppb compared to 596 ppb Jan-March 2018). Average contamination of FUM and ZEN decreased compared to the first quarter of 2018.
The highest FUM and DON contamination in the first months of 2019 were detected in corn gluten (16539 ppb FUM) and Corn DDGS (3145 ppb DON). Maximum ZEN concentration was found in corn kernels (4154 ppb).
South America is at severe risk. An increase in prevalence compared to Jan-March 2018 can be mainly seen for Afla (15% Jan-March 2018 to 33% Jan-March 2019). FUM is now the most prevalent mycotoxin (72%) with an average contamination of 2129 ppb. It is particularly present in corn (91%) with an average concentration of 2548 ppb. In this commodity, the maximum FUM concentration of 37970 ppb was detected. Interestingly, ZEN was present in 80% of all soybean samples investigated (262 samples) with an average contamination of 102 ppb.
Risk increased in Central America and is mainly based on DON contamination. It is the second most abundant mycotoxin in this region (81%, FUM: 83%) but with an average contamination of 603 ppb. Abundance of DON reaches 83% in corn and even 91% in finished feed.
Europe shows a similar picture in the first quarter of 2019 compared to the first quarter of 2018. FUM is the most abundant mycotoxin in all sub regions in Europe, namely Southern, Central and interestingly Northern Europe. Only in Eastern Europe, DON is the main mycotoxin found. In whole Europe, corn is especially at risk with 86% of the samples contaminated with FUM (average 1089 ppb) and 67% DON (average 262 ppb). In finished feed ZEN is most frequently found (78%, average 24 ppb), followed by FUM (74%) and DON (69%).
Asia shows increased prevalence of ZEN, DON and FUM as well as T-2 compared to Jan-March 2018.
Asia is facing threat from various mycotoxins. With 86% FUM is most abundant (average 1947 ppb, max. 56332 ppb), followed by DON (75%, average 452 ppb, max 9432 ppb), ZEN (69%, 96 ppb, max 2744 ppb) and Afla (40%, average 31 ppb, max 548 ppb). Corn and finished feed show high contamination with these mycotoxins. In South Asia, mycotoxin risk is extreme. This result is mainly based on samples from India, which is most of all threatened by Afla (88%, average 20 ppb) and also FUM (86%, average 377 ppb).
In Oceania, risk of mycotoxin contamination is moderate.
Middle East and Northern Africa
ZEN (89%), FUM (75%) and DON (54%) are the main mycotoxins detected with average contamination levels of 30 ppb, 338 ppb and 323 ppb, respectively.
In Africa, all samples analyzed were contaminated with FUM (average 203 ppb, max 3374 ppb). 66% (average 521 ppb) and 64% (average 55 ppb) were positive for DON and ZEN, respectively. Afla was found in 16% of all samples with an average concentration of 9 ppb. Average concentrations of DON were rather high in corn and finished feed samples (621 ppb and 401 ppb, respectively). Most samples analyzed from Jan-March 2019 derived from South Africa.