The BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey constitutes the longest running and most comprehensive survey of its kind, using advanced analytic tools. It details the incidence of the main mycotoxins occurring in agricultural commodities, which include: aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA).
The survey focuses on components that are used for feed such as corn, wheat, barley, rice, soybean meal, corn gluten meal, dried distillers grains (DDGS) and silage, among others.
From January to September 2017, 51197 analyses were conducted on 13153 finished feed and raw commodity samples sourced from 69 countries.
Overall, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins were detected in 78% and 71% of all samples at average levels of 769 ppb and 2,221 ppb, respectively. Out of all samples, 49% are contaminated by ZEN, whereas Afla, T-2 and OTA are present in less than 25% of samples; 24%, 18% and 20%, respectively (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Occurrence of mycotoxins worldwide through Q3 2017. Average of all samples collected by BIOMIN.
A full 94% of all samples contained at least one mycotoxin, and 75% of all samples contained two or more mycotoxins (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins worldwide through Q3 2017.
Average of all samples collected by BIOMIN.
With 4 mycotoxins above the risk threshold, Europe faces a high contamination risk. The most prevalent mycotoxin in this region was DON, detected in 72% of the samples, followed by ZEN, detected in 52% of the samples. One finished feed sample from Spain had a maximum concentration of DON of 28,470 ppb and the highest maximum FUM concentration was detected in a Turkish sample (9,972 ppb).
In Asia the average concentration of 5 mycotoxins is above the risk threshold, hence this region is facing a severe contamination risk. The most prevalent mycotoxin was FUM, detected in 82% of samples, followed by DON, detected in 78% of samples analyzed. Although the incidence of Afla was rather low (34% of samples analyzed contaminated with this mycotoxin), the average concentration is worrisome and represents a threat for animals and humans.
The average concentration of FUM in this region represents a threat to pigs and poultry. A finished feed sample from Malaysia registered a maximum concentration of FUM of 46,515 ppb. The highest concentration of DON was 13,206 ppb and it was detected in a Chinese wheat bran sample.
North America faces a high risk of mycotoxin contamination with 4 mycotoxins above the risk threshold. DON and FUM were the most prevalent mycotoxins in feed samples, detected in 78% and 60% of samples respectively. The average concentrations of FUM and DON in this region maybe a problem for pigs and poultry. Maximum concentrations of DON and FUM were very high in this region (51,374 and 28,605 ppb respectively).
South and Central America
These regions face a high contamination risk having 4 mycotoxins average concentrations above the risk threshold. DON is the highest prevalent mycotoxin and was found in 84% of samples, followed by FUM and ZEN, identified in 77% and 48% of samples respectively. Afla, T-2 and OTA were detected in 24%, 25% and 4% of samples respectively. South America shows the highest maximum concentration of FUM worldwide (218,883 ppb) and it was detected in a Brazilian corn sample.
With 4 mycotoxins average concentrations above the risk threshold, the Middle East faces a high contamination risk. The most prevalent mycotoxins in this region were DON and FUM and ZEN detected in 69%, 68% and 53% of samples respectively. The highest maximum concentration detected in Middle East were 8,841 ppb FUM and 4,801 DON.
With 4 mycotoxins above the risk threshold South Africa faces a high contamination risk. DON, FUM and ZEN were the most prevalent mycotoxins detected in 71%, 66% and 38% of samples respectively.
These BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey findings show that recent mycotoxin occurrence is quite high. The mycotoxin problem can be addressed through valid farm management strategies and the use of a registered mycotoxin deactivator whose efficiency is scientifically proven.