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AquaStar®

Fast growth in improved environment

AquaStar® is the most complete aquaculture probiotics range on the market for hatchery, feed mill and farm sectors.

Gut Performance Management

The multi-species approach builds on synergies and complementary modes of action between different bacterial species, and ensures users are provided with maximum benefits.

Main Benefits

Improves survival

Inhibits pathogens

Promotes disease resistance through immunomodulation

Improves gut barrier function

Improves growth performance

Improves water quality

in part by reducing toxic metabolites e.g. ammonia, nitrite, nitrate & hydrogen sulfide 

Reduces organic matter in pond environments

Improves pond sediments

Increases productivity

The Science Behind AquaStar® – Mode of Action

 

Pathogen inhibition

The strains in AquaStar® are capable of inhibiting a wide range of aquaculture pathogens, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive (Table 1).

Table 1: Pathogen inhibition* of AquaStar® probiotics
PathogenEnterococcus sp.Pediococcus sp.Lactobacillus sp.Bacillus sp.
A. hydrophila51-75%51-75%51-75%26-50%
A. salmonicida76-100%76-100%76-100%1-25%
E. tarda76-100%51-75%76-100%26-50%
F. indologenes76-100%76-100%76-100%26-50%
P. fluorescens0%0%0%1-25%
S. agalactiae51-75%51-75%51-75%26-50%
S. iniae51-75%51-75%51-75%76-100%
V. alginolyticus51-75%26-50%51-75%51-75%
V. diazotrophicus51-75%26-50%51-75%1-25%
V. harveyi51-75%51-75%51-75%26-50%
V. parahaemolyticus76-100%76-100%76-100%26-50%
Y. ruckeri76-100%51-75%76-100%76-100%

Gut colonization

To successfully colonize the gut, probiotics must be able to adhere to the intestinal epithelial cells, enterocytes. Once this is achieved, they can competitively exclude invading pathogens, and interact with the host immune system. AquaStar® strains can successfully attach to fish enterocytes, demonstrating their effective colonizing ability (Figure 1).

Figure 1: The ability of AquaStar® probiotics to attach to epithelial cells from fish intestine
Figure 1: The ability of AquaStar® probiotics to attach to epithelial cells from fish intestine. The value represents the number of probiotic cells that can attach to a single enterocyte.

Disease resistance

By controlling pathogens and positively modulating the immune system, AquaStar® application can improve the disease resistance of aquatic animals. Figure 2 shows the survival of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), with and without AquaStar®, after a Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge.

Figure 2: Mortality of shrimp fed control (grey) or AquaStar® (green) diets after a V. parahaemolyticus immersion challenge
Figure 2: Mortality of shrimp fed control (grey) or AquaStar® (green) diets after a V. parahaemolyticus immersion challenge

Enzyme production

Bacillus spp. are well known for their ability to produce enzymes. In the gut these can contribute to better feed digestibility and reduced FCR. If applied in the water they can break down organic matter in the environment, facilitating the release of highly digestible components and preventing the accumulation of toxic sediments. This effect can be further stimulated by the addition of enzyme cocktails, as in AquaStar® PondZyme.

However, the ability of Bacillus spp. to produce enzymes is highly variable, and the strain chosen for AquaStar® products demonstrated the highest combined protease, amylase and cellulase activity (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Enzyme production (protease, amylase and cellulase) of multiple Bacillus spp. candidates.
Figure 3: Enzyme production (protease, amylase and cellulase) of multiple Bacillus spp. candidates. The red box indicates the strain chosen for AquaStar® products.

Nitrogen waste control

Ammonia (NH3), nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) are all toxic to aquatic animals. The bioremediation strains in AquaStar® Pond and AquaStar® PondZyme can significantly reduce these metabolites, in a range of environmental conditions (Figure 4).

Figure 4: The concentration of N-waste with AquaStar®, after 0, 24 and 48 hours in aerobic and anaerobic conditions
Figure 4: The concentration of N-waste with AquaStar®, after 0, 24 and 48 hours in aerobic and anaerobic conditions

Hydrogen sulfide removal

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is generated as organic matter decomposes, and is extremely toxic in very low concentrations. AquaStar® strains can reduce the abundance of H2S in water and sediments (Figure 5).

Figure 5: The concentration of H2S after 216 hours, relative to 0 hours, with AquaStar® (light blue) and without (dark blue)
Figure 5: The concentration of H2S after 216 hours, relative to 0 hours, with AquaStar® (light blue) and without (dark blue)

Application

The dosage and application depends on the product:

AquaStar® Hatchery

Application: Dissolve thoroughly in un-chlorinated water (minimum 1:20 ratio). Ideally leave for 20 min to 'activate' and apply in the tank water or with live feed.

Dosage: 2-5 g/ 1,000 L or 100,000 larvae at least once per day

AquaStar® Growout

Application: Dissolve thoroughly in un-chlorinated water. Apply onto the feed as a top dressing and mix.

Dosage: 2-5 kg/t feed according to developmental stage and culture conditions

AquaStar® Pond

Application: Dissolve thoroughly in un-chlorinated fresh water (1:30 ratio). Ideally leave for 20 minutes to ‘activate’ and distribute in various locations around the pond.

Dosage:

Stocking density (PL/m2)Application 7 days before stockingApplication during growout period
< 151.5 kg/ha0.5-1 kg/ha every 2-4 weeks
15-502 kg/ha0.5-1 kg/ha every 1-2 weeks
51-1002 kg/ha0.6-1.5 kg/ha every 1-2 weeks
> 1012 kg/ha0.6-1.5 kg/ha every 5-7 days

AquaStar® PondZyme

Application: Dissolve thoroughly in un-chlorinated fresh water (1:30 ratio). Ideally leave for 20 minutes to ‘activate’ and distribute in various locations around the pond.

Dosage:

Stocking density (PL/m2)Application first 4-12 weeks of productionApplication during last 4 weeks of production
< 15--
15-500.3-0.5 kg/ha every 4 weeks0.5-0.7 kg/ha every 2-4 weeks
51-1000.5 kg/ha every 2-3 weeks0.5-1 kg/ha every 2 weeks
> 1010.5 kg/ha every 2-3 weeks0.5-1 kg/ha every 1-2 weeks

Certain statements may not be applicable in all geographical regions. Product associated claims may differ based on government requirements.
Product availability may vary by country, please contact BIOMIN for more information.

Read more about AquaStar®

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