What is a Phytogenic Feed Additive?
- Applegate TJ, Klose V, Steiner T, Ganner A, Schatzmayr G. Probiotics and phytogenics for poultry: myth or reality? J Appl Poult Res (2010) 19:194–210.10.3382/japr.2010-00168
- Murugesan G. R., Syed B., Haldar S., Pender C. (2015). Phytogenic feed additives as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in broiler chickens. Front. Vet. Sci. 2:21 10.3389/fvets.2015.00021
Phytogenics include a broad range of plant materials, most of which have a long history in human nutrition, where they have been used as flavors, food preservatives and medicines since ancient times.
Table 1. Herbs and spices with known benefits for farm animals
|Herb/spice||Latin name||Plant family||Main constituents||Key Benefits|
|Oregano||Oreganum vulgare||Labiateae||Carvacrol, thymol||Antimicrrobial, Antioxidant|
|Thyme||Thymus vulgare||Labiateae||Thymol, carvacrol||Antioxidant, Antimicrobial|
|Garlic||Allium sativum L.||Alliaceae, Liliaceae||Diallyldisulfide, alliin, alliciin||Lipid digestion, antimicrobial|
|Horseradish||Armoracia rusticana||Brassicaceae||Allyl-isothiocyanate||Immunity booster|
|Chili, Cayenne Pepper||Capsicum frutescens||Solanaceae||Capsaicin||Appetite, palatability|
|Peppermint||Mentha piperita||Labiateae||Menthol, carvacrol||Stomach, improving gut peristalsis|
|Cinnamon||Cinnamomum cassia||Lauraceae||Cinnamaldehyde||Antimicrobial, Appetising|
|Anise||Pimpinella anisum||Apiaceae, Umbelliferae||Anethol||Appetite, stomach peristalsis|
Effects in animals
Phytogenics are known to have a range of biologically active properties that are beneficial in modern livestock production, including: antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and digestion-enhancing effects.1 For example, phenols such as thymol, carvacrol and eugenol (often derived from thyme, oregano and clove) and their methyl ethers have a very strong antiseptic and antimicrobial effect. Species of the families of Apiaceae such as caraway and fennel and Lamiaceae (e.g. rosemary and peppermint) have strong antioxidative properties. Other plant compounds support better digestibility by boosting digestive secretions such as bile, mucus and saliva as well as enhancing enzyme activity.
Achieving consistent and reliable results with plant-based substances in animal diets requires a well-defined formulation, standardized raw materials and effective quality control.
The use of phytogenic feed additives offers a number of benefits to producers, including:
- enhanced animal performance
- improved feed efficiency
- reduced emissions
Overall, PFAs are capable of reducing microbial threat and promoting intestinal health, which is imperative for optimal performance and profitability.2
Reasons for PFA use
Nutritionists, growers, business owners, veterinarians and consultants located in over 100 countries provided their views on the use of plant-derived compounds in farm animal nutrition within the framework of the 2017 BIOMIN Phytogenic Feed Additives Survey.
Digestibility enhancement ranked as the number one reason that the livestock industry uses phtogenics, followed by their perceived antimicrobial effects, their use within an AGP replacement strategy and growth promotion. Respondents also cited PFAs’ anti-inflammatory effects, good past experience with PFAs, an optimized feed conversion ratio (FCR), and higher feed intake as reasons that they use phytogenic feed additives.
Figure 1. Top reasons that respondents use phytogenic feed additives
A growing market
While PFAs have been used in commercial agriculture settings since the 1980s, only around 5% of feed used worldwide includes these plant-based products.
Numerous trends, including antibiotic reduction, the uptake of novel growth promoters (NGPs) to optimize feed costs, the drive to improve efficiency and requirements to reduce emissions should boost demand worldwide for plant-derived additives in the future.
As a consequence, the market for phytogenic feed additives is projected to quadruple, reaching between US$1.7 billion and US$2 billion in global sales by 2030, according to BIOMIN.
Figure 2. Global PFA Market Growth Projections