BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey Q1 2021 Results
Review on the occurrence of major mycotoxins in the first quarter of 2021 (January to March). In total 23,495 analyses were conducted on 5,077 finished feed and raw commodities samples originating from 58 countries.30.04.2021
It is commonly observed that single mycotoxins are rarely found alone. Different mycotoxins tend to co-contaminate feed materials. This is also valid for the data analyzed during this year. A full 68% of all samples (analyzed for at least two mycotoxins) in the first three quarters of 2020 contained more than one mycotoxin.
Risk in North America is severe. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the main concerns in all species, but particularly for swine and poultry. It was present in 64% of all samples (average of positives 932 ppb, maximum 30,044 ppb). In corn kernels, DON’s prevalence is 66% with the average concentration of positive samples reaching 1,485 ppb. Fumonisins (FUM) were the most prevalent mycotoxins (70%), with a high average concentration of 2,358 ppb. A high average concentration of 330 ppb is also reported for zearalenone (ZEN). Nearly all (91%) corn samples contained at least one mycotoxin.
Central America is at extreme risk. The majority (75%) of all samples tested positive for FUM. These positive samples contained on average 1,126 ppb, and a maximum of 34,916 ppb was detected. Contamination with FUM is even higher in corn kernel samples (abundance 97%, average of positives 2,062 ppb). The second most prevalent mycotoxin was DON, occurring frequently in all samples tested (69%) and particularly in corn (83%). All (100%) corn samples (tested for more than 3 mycotoxins) contained at least one mycotoxin.
Risk in this region is severe. Fusarium mycotoxins are the most prevalent mycotoxins found, with FUM present in 65% of all samples, followed by DON (59%) and ZEN (42%). Aflatoxin (Afla) was found in 29% of the samples (average of positives 12 ppb, maximum 2,630 ppb) and thus shows increased abundance compared to the same time period last year (January to March 2020: 12%, average of positives 6 ppb). Corn shows a high frequency of FUM (80%, average of positives 1,717 ppb) and DON (52%, average of positives 642 ppb). Nearly all (96%) corn samples contained at least one mycotoxin.
Risk in Europe ranges from moderate to severe. The most prevalent mycotoxin is still DON (51%), followed by ZEN (47%) and FUM (40%). DON is the main threat for livestock. The majority (69%) of corn samples tested positive for this mycotoxin with an average of positives of 986 ppb. Most affected is Central Europe. In this region, high DON occurrence is reported for corn silage; 86% of samples tested positive for DON and showed high average concentrations of 1,211 ppb and a maximum as high as 19,275 ppb. Most (89%) European corn samples contained at least one mycotoxin.
Risk is extreme in South Asia, China and Taiwan. In South-East Asia and East Asia risk is severe. Compared to the same time period last year (January-March 2020), almost all mycotoxins had higher occurrence: FUM, DON, ZEN, Afla and Ochratoxin A (OTA). OTA showed the highest increase (from 16% to 33%) but with a moderate average of positive concentration (7 ppb). Only the abundance of T-2 decreased slightly. Fusarium mycotoxins are most prevalent. FUM occurred in 93% of corn samples, average is high with 2,075 ppb. Afla shows high concentrations in corn (average of positive samples 69 ppb). All corn samples contained at least one mycotoxin.
In Oceania, risk of mycotoxin contamination is moderate.
Risk is severe in the Middle East, mainly due to the high abundance of Fusarium toxins. Although DON prevalence decreased from 71% in 2020 to 52% (average of positives 368 ppb reaching a maximum of 1,592 ppb), FUM prevalence increased from 69% in January-March 2020 to 96% in 2021. Of the samples tested, 80% contained more than one mycotoxin.
In Sub-Saharan Africa, risk is severe. The main risk is due to DON followed by FUM. South African corn was highly subjected to Fusarium toxins. DON was the most prevalent mycotoxin (98% of samples positive, average of positives 762 ppb reaching a maximum of 4,035 ppb), followed by FUM and ZEN. All corn samples tested contained at least one mycotoxin.
Spectrum 380® results
Spectrum 380® is the most comprehensive mycotoxin detection service available. BIOMIN analyzed 168 samples between January and March 2021 using this advanced service. Due to the analytical method that is used (LC MS/MS), this method depicts occurrence of not only the well-known mycotoxins, but also emerging mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites that are often not considered in regular analysis, but could still disrupt animal production.
Analysis results show that 23% of the samples contained 60 or more metabolites (per sample). Results for emerging mycotoxins show that Moniliformin was present in all corn samples and in 99% of finished feed. Beauvericin was present in 100% of finished feed samples. Negative effects of Moniliformin on poultry and rodents have been observed, including damage to the heart muscle, respiratory distress and immune system. Also decreased feed intake and body weight gain was reported. Beauvericin showed toxic effects in laboratory experiments with cell lines, but no acute effects in vivo. However, chronic effects still need to be determined and an impact on the immune system has been suggested.