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Toxin binders for cattle

Feed additives to mitigate the effects of toxins and fungal metabolites

Various mycotoxins are able to modify the rumen microflora as they exert antimicrobial, antiprotozoal and antifungal activity. In practical terms, this means that mycotoxins escape detoxification and are absorbed by the intestine.  

In other words, mycotoxins disrupt the rumen function before impacting the animal itself. Drastic changes in feed composition and a high percentage of protein-rich concentrates in the daily diet also impair the cleavage capacity of rumen microorganisms.  

Reduced ruminal motility, decreased dry matter intake, acid detergent fiber and starch digestion are some negative impacts reported due to the ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated feed. That is why usage of an effective mycotoxin binder in cattle/dairy/beef feed is so crucial. 

Definition of toxin binder

In agriculture, a toxin binder refers to a substance added to animal feed in minute quantities that is able to neutralize or immobilize harmful chemicals, mycotoxins or endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) within animals’ gastrointestinal tracts, thus avoiding negative consequences.  

Mycotoxin binders can be considered a subset of the more general toxin binder for cattle category, though the two terms are often used interchangeably.  

Adsorption 

Binders bind contaminants by trapping them in a clay or other porous material in a process known as adsorption. The addition of adsorbent (binder) materials to animal feeds is very common for the prevention of mycotoxicosis in ruminants, especially aflatoxicosis. 

A mycotoxin binder binds to a mycotoxin such as aflatoxin, which has a polar and flat chemical structure, through adsorption.  Picture a sandwich. Aflatoxin is the meat, and the layers of the binding substance are the two slices of bread.  

Once the mycotoxin enters the binder layers, the electric force generated by the atoms of both compounds tightens the bond. While a good binder will immobilize aflatoxins and even endotoxins, there are other mycotoxins that cannot be bound, because their structures are less flat and less polar than aflatoxins. 

Adsorption
Adsorption

Trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol, fumonisins and zearalenone require other mitigation strategies. 

Figure 1. Adsorption efficacy of different mycotoxins.
Figure 1. Adsorption efficacy of different mycotoxins.

Binder materials 

Certain materials are better at binding than others. Examples of binder materials include:  

  • Silicates  
  • Clays e.g. bentonite 
  • Yeast  
  • Charcoal  

Evaluating binders  

When choosing a mycotoxin binder, look for one that’s specific—which means it only binds mycotoxins. A non-specific binder will adsorb other nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, reducing the nutritional value of your feed. 

In an evaluation of 300 commercially-available products tested for their adsorption capacity using the European Union Reference Laboratories (EURL) method, only high-quality bentonite was able to bind more than 90% of 4000 parts per billion of aflatoxin B1 at a pH of 5. 

The EURL method is based on a multi-year research project between BIOMIN and the Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA Tulln), the world leader in research on fungi and mycotoxins. It identified five key characteristics required for an effective mycotoxin binder. Read more on the truth about mycotoxin binders and the criteria for choosing a good binder.  

State-of-the-art mycotoxin deactivation 

While binders represent the most common, conventional form of mycotoxin control, the limitations on what can be bound has led to newer, more effective methods to mitigate the effects of mycotoxins, such as bioprotection and biotransformation.   

Biotransformation 

Biotransformation is the future of mycotoxin risk management. It works by transforming non-adsorbable mycotoxins into harmless substances without any side effects for livestock by altering the physical structure of mycotoxins. 

BIOMIN has successfully pioneered the development and commercialization of biotransforming agents of various kinds, including: 

  • A microogranism that produces enzymes which detoxifies tricothecenes 
  • A yeast strain that neutralizes zearalenone and ochratoxin A 
  • A purified enzyme that bio­transforms fumonisins into non-toxic metabolites 

These innovations are available within our mycotoxin risk management solutions.  

Bioprotection 

Bioprotection relies on a scientifically proven blend of carefully selected plant and algae extracts to boost animals’ liver and immune function in order to help animals cope with the negative effects of mycotoxins. 

Best-in-class protection 

A mycotoxin deactivator such as Mycofix® that combines all three strategies —adsorption, biotransformation and bioprotection— offers the most complete coverage against the negative effects of mycotoxins. 

Solutions

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