BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey Q1 2019 Results

The BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey analyzed 4828 finished feed and raw commodity samples sourced from 60 countries over the period January to March 2019 as part of the ongoing effort to identify the presence of mycotoxins and the potential risk posed to livestock animal production. 

Highlights

  • Co-contamination remains a hot topic. 73% of all samples (analyzed for at least two mycotoxins) contained more than one mycotoxin.
  • South Asia region remains at extreme risk. This is mainly due to the very high abundance of aflatoxins (Afla) (88%) with an average contamination of 20 ppb (maximum 210 ppb). 
  • Risk increased from severe to extreme in Central America. Fumonisins (FUM) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are frequently found. 
  • In North America, risk is extreme and DON remains the most prevalent mycotoxin (82%, average contamination 869 ppb).
  • South America shows a high abundance of FUM but also DON and is at severe risk (72% and 61%, respectively).
  • Europe is at high risk of mycotoxin contamination. FUM and DON are most prevalent (64% and 58%, respectively), but also zearalenone (ZEN) is a topic (56%, average contamination 78 ppb and with a maximum of 9905 ppb).
  • In Africa, FUM was found in all samples analyzed (100%, average contamination 203 ppb, maximum 3374 ppb).

Global overview

This Figure 1 map presents the prevalence of the main well known mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA), in the different regions. Colors in the map indicate the risk levels of the regions. These risk levels are based on the percentage of samples for which at least one mycotoxin exceeds the risk threshold levels for livestock. The thresholds are defined by BIOMIN and rely on years of practical experience and research. They consider the most sensitive species for each mycotoxin. 

Figure 1. Global map of mycotoxin occurrence and risk in different regions. Source: BIOMIN
Figure 1. Global map of mycotoxin occurrence and risk in different regions. Source: BIOMIN

North America

Figure 2: Extreme risk in North America
Figure 2: Extreme risk in North America

In North America, DON was the most abundant mycotoxin, found in 82% of the samples with an average of 869 ppb and poses an extreme risk to swine. When comparing the prevalence of the main mycotoxins in the first quarter of 2019 to the first quarter of 2018, an increase can be seen for DON (62 to 82%), FUM (49 to 63%) and also ZEN (25 to 60%). 

DON also showed a higher average concentration from January-March 2019 (869 ppb compared to 596 ppb Jan-March 2018). Average contamination of FUM and ZEN decreased compared to the first quarter of 2018.

The highest FUM and DON contamination in the first months of 2019 were detected in corn (72950 ppb FUM) and Corn DDGS (3145 ppb DON). Maximum ZEN concentration was found in corn kernels (4154 ppb).

South America

Figure 3: Severe risk in South America. Source: BIOMIN
Figure 3: Severe risk in South America. Source: BIOMIN

South America is at severe risk. An increase in prevalence compared to Jan-March 2018 can be mainly seen for Afla (15% Jan-March 2018 to 33% Jan-March 2019). FUM is now the most prevalent mycotoxin (72%) with an average contamination of 2218 ppb. It is particularly present in corn (91%) with an average concentration of 2585 ppb. In this commodity, the maximum FUM concentration of 37970 ppb was detected. Interestingly, ZEN was present in 80% of all soybean samples investigated (262 samples) with an average contamination of 102 ppb.

Central America

Figure 4: Extreme risk Central America. Source: BIOMIN
Figure 4: Extreme risk Central America. Source: BIOMIN

Risk increased in Central America and is mainly based on FUM and DON contamination. FUM is the most abundant mycotoxin in this region (83%, average 6047 ppb), followed by DON (81%, 603 ppb). Abundance of DON reaches 83% in corn and even 91% in finished feed.

Europe

Europe shows a similar picture in the first quarter of 2019 compared to the first quarter of 2018. FUM is the most abundant mycotoxin in all sub regions in Europe, namely Southern, Central and interestingly Northern Europe. Only in Eastern Europe, DON is the main mycotoxin found. In whole Europe, corn is especially at risk with 86% of the samples contaminated with FUM (average 1089 ppb) and 67% DON (average 262 ppb). In finished feed ZEN is most frequently found (78%, average 24 ppb), followed by FUM (74%) and DON (69%).

Figure 5: High risk in Europe. Source: BIOMIN
Figure 5: High risk in Europe. Source: BIOMIN

Asia

Asia shows increased prevalence of ZEN, DON and FUM as well as T-2 compared to Jan-March 2018.

Asia is facing threat from various mycotoxins. With 86% FUM is most abundant (average 1947 ppb, max. 56332 ppb), followed by DON (75%, average 452 ppb, max 9432 ppb), ZEN (69%, 96 ppb, max 2744 ppb) and Afla (40%, average 31 ppb, max 548 ppb). Corn and finished feed show high contamination with these mycotoxins. In South Asia, mycotoxin risk is extreme. This result is mainly based on samples from India, which is most of all threatened by Afla (88%, average 20 ppb) and also FUM (86%, average 377 ppb). 

In Oceania, risk of mycotoxin contamination is moderate. 

Figure 6: High to extreme risk in Asia Pacific. Source: BIOMIN
Figure 6: High to extreme risk in Asia Pacific. Source: BIOMIN

Middle East and Northern Africa

ZEN (89%), FUM (75%) and DON (54%) are the main mycotoxins detected with average contamination levels of 30 ppb, 338 ppb and 323 ppb, respectively.

Figure 7: High risk in the Middle East. Source: BIOMIN
Figure 7: High risk in the Middle East. Source: BIOMIN

Sub-Saharan Africa

In Africa, all samples analyzed were contaminated with FUM (average 203 ppb, max 3374 ppb). 66% (average 521 ppb) and 64% (average 55 ppb) were positive for DON and ZEN, respectively. Afla was found in 16% of all samples with an average concentration of 9 ppb. Average concentrations of DON were rather high in corn and finished feed samples (621 ppb and 401 ppb, respectively). Most samples analyzed from Jan-March 2019 derived from South Africa.

Figure 8: Severe risk in Africa. Source: BIOMIN
Figure 8: Severe risk in Africa. Source: BIOMIN

Download Mycotoxin Survey Report - Quarter 1 2019